Super Mario Bros. <cite>Screen capture</cite>

World 1-1: Why we should be studying video games in language arts

What 'Super Mario Bros.' can teach us about interactive design and 21st century storytelling

While Grand Theft Auto V may not be appropriate for high school classrooms, you can be certain almost every one of your high school students has heard of the game or has played it themselves.

Super Mario Bros. is the Hamlet of video games

Long before video games were the top media product, they were worthy to be critically analyzed as media texts. In the third generation of video game consoles, one of the most popular video games of all time is also one of the earliest examples of this critical relevance: 1985’s Super Mario Bros. The game, developed and published by the Japan-based Nintendo Co. Ltd., is the perfect example with which to teach reading, writing and communication skills, as well as media literacy, and the elements of video game design and storytelling.

Like Shakespeare and Hamlet are to literature, so Nintendo and Super Mario Bros. are to video games. Deceptively simple, Nintendo’s masterpiece tells the tale of a pair of plumbers who travel to a strange alternate world to rescue a princess from a turtle-like antagonist named Bowser and his minions. This defining “platform” video game — a genre which features a player-controlled character that jumps and climbs from point A to B while avoiding obstacles — remains one the greatest examples of elegant game design and is notable for reviving the video game industry after the 1983 crash, and establishing Nintendo as a leading entertainment producer and consumer electronics manufacturer.

When introducing the study of video games and video game design, there’s no better place to start than Super Mario Bros. and its iconic World 1-1. This level remains a masterclass of interactive design. After the player picks up a controller and presses start, within the very first seconds of the game, they are placed into a new environment. Intuitively, without any text appearing, or the need to read a manual, the player moves forward and is introduced to the basics of the game. Quickly, the player learns through play to successfully explore the level by running and jumping. Similar to the first chapter of a great book, Super Mario Bros. immediately immerses the player into a compellingly strange, fictional world.

Exploring World 1-1

  • Introduce the player to a problem
  • Develop this problem
  • Create a twist on the problem
  • Provide a satisfying conclusion to the problem.

Using this philosophy, it is easy to build connections between Super Mario Bros. level design and the traditional elements of plot (exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution).

In addition to combining level design with traditional storytelling, Super Mario Bros. can also be understood grammatically. If you think of Mario’s jump as a verb — the concept of a verb is used an action descriptor in both writing and video game design — you can use the jump alongside literary elements to build simple action sequences like this:

There are a near-infinite amount of four-step levels and action sequences that can be created by understanding Super Mario Bros.’ core level creation concepts. By combining traditional writing skills with the language of interactive design, instructors can create writing tasks that allow students to construct and deconstruct and their own Super Mario levels.


Over the decades, the Super Mario series has expanded to include an overwhelming array of obstacles and foes. Nintendo’s deceptively simple, yet infinitely adaptable level design structure has remained constant nearly 35 years later. In recent years, Nintendo went meta and gamified their own game design in the Super Mario Maker series, which allows players to imagine, create, remix, and share their own custom Mario courses.

Naturally, if a pixelated, jumping plumber can invite deep academic scrutiny, so too can a vast library of games that came after it which prioritize storyline over programming.


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2. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2007). The Ontario Curriculum: Grades 11 and 12: English. Retrieved from

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5. How long does it take to read popular books? (28 June 2017). Retrieved from

6. Brown, M. (11 November 2016). Nintendo – Putting Play First. Game Maker’s Toolkit. Retrieved from

7. Snead, J. & Bleszinski, C. (Producers), & Snead, J. (Director). (2014). Video Games: The Movie. US: Variance Films.

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